The clickable map above shows an overview of the decipherment of the Neolithic megalithic sites of Scotland. Ancient Scotland ca. 3117 BC was geographically surveyed by astronomy. Please note the following color coding: RED marks megalithic sites, GREEN marks astronomical locations, and BLUE provides general geographic locations.
The Highlands represented the center of the survey and were marked astronomically as the center of the heavens, with the Pole Star (the North Celestial Pole) marked at the Clava Cairns at Balnuaran of Clava near Inverness, with BAL = POLE.
Megalithic sites near Aberdeen such as Old Meldrum marked the stars of Cepheus.
The stars of Cepheus are marked as follows. The sites of the Greater Eslie and Lesser Eslie mark the stars at the tip of the "pyrymid" of Cepheus at gamma-Cepheus and pi-Cepheus. This tip marks the path of precession of the pole star over the course of 25,920 years. ESLIE as a term is in our analysis the same as Indo-European, e.g. Latvian JUOSLA meaning "belt, girth".
Sunhoney marks beta-Cepheus, a multiperiodic star known as Alfirk. Beta-cepheus gave stars of this multiperiodic type the name "beta-cephei star". Sunhoney is similar to a Latin name for Cepheus, Sonans (see Richard Hinckley Allen's Star Names) which may be a confusion with the more ancient name Senex aequoreus for Cepheus. The site in Scotland known as Easter Aquhorthies marks the brightest star in Cepheus, Alderamin. The otherwise strange name Aquhorthies is thus similar to "aequoreus" as Cepheus. As for Alfirk, the Arabic Al Kawakib al Firk were the "the stars of the flock" of Cepheus, perhaps applied originally to alpha, beta and eta-Cephei according to Allen.
Midmar Kirk (Firk?) in Scotland may mark NGC 7023,
the "Iris Nebula", near T-Cepheus.
Iota-Cephei is marked by Cullerlie.
Zeta-Cephei is marked the site of Tyrebagger
near Dyce in Aberdeenshire.
Nu-Cephei is marked by the Broomend of Crichie, with Crichie as a word being similar to the Arabic Al Kurhah, applied to the star xi-Cephei in the middle of the square of the pyramid shape which Cepheus forms. The name KURHAH is similar to Indo-European, e.g. Latvian KUR "burn". As I have deciphered the Sumerian Temple Hymns showing them to be astronomy, the ancients apparently saw this as the "oven" of heaven for the fire of the stars.
Eta-Cephei is marked by the Loanhead of Daviot.
Delta-Cygnus is represented by Longmanhill.
Gamma-Cygnus is marked by a Clava-type round cairn at Memsie, a name like Timshemath (or Tinshemeth, Swan, flying insect) or M'ZYM "refuge, fortress" viz. HIREZYM of the Hebrews.
Alpha-Cygnus, also called Deneb, was represented by the site of Strichen, which reminds of the German term Strauss (ostrich).
Loudon Wood and Cairn Catto near Peterhead might mark Lacerta or other stars of Cygnus.
Quarry Wood at Elgin represents Vega, the star alpha in Lyra, known as Dilgan in Sumerian.
Marionburgh represents gamma Draconis in the head of Draco.
Lagmore represents beta-Draconis (Rastaban) in the head of Draco, but perhaps the name is retained as Arrakis (Rak = Lag?), the dancer, mu-draconis.
The largest recumbent stone in Scotland is found at Old Keig, marking delta-Draconis, which is the brightest star near heaven's center, i.e. closest to the North Ecliptic Pole. Even its current name ALTAIS is similar to OLD KEIG. In Mesopotamia this was perhaps Caga Gilgati or
E-dul-Kug in the ancient astronomical temple hymns and appears to be the central source of wood
(KEIG = Indo-European e.g. Latvian KUOK- "wood")
for the fire of heaven which is kindled in the pyramid oven of Cepheus.
Tau or AR-Cassiopeia may be marked by Tullos Hill near Aberdeen while
Raedykes, Cassiopeia, is perhaps the same as Sumerian Eridug but this is speculative.
The stars of Ursa Minor are marked in the first instance by the site of Bucharn, which marks Polaris, the present pole star - which was not, however, the pole star in the Neolithic period. Bucharn may be similar to Spanish bocina "bugle" and Italian bogina "a boa", both applied to Ursa Minor, so that neither is the original meaning, but both have retained a similar word in sound. The original term is perhaps the sense of "handle" of an axe, as Celtic bùlas "pot hook"; Scottish bools, a "pot hook"; Middle English bool "a pail handle"; German bügel, "arc"; Teutonic beugan "bend", English "bow". See bùlas in Alexander MacBain, An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, Gairm Publications, 1982.
Glassel marks delta-Ursa Minor.
Tomnaverie (Tom-na-VERie) marks gamma Ursa-Minor, the star Alifa al Farkadain viz. PHERkad.
The Blue Cairn marks beta Ursa-Minor, the star Kochab, Arabic Nair al Farkadain.
The geographic shapes of counties in Scotland marked the stars they represent just as they do in e.g. Ireland as well. Perthshire and Perth thus marked Perseus.
Monzie marks alpha-Persei, the star Mirfak also called Mirzac or Algenib.
Strathgroy (Strathgarry) marks delta-Persei.
Croft Moraig - (Moraig= Mirzac?) - marks epsilon-Persei.
Fortingall marks 52-Persei.
Clach na Tiompan - Nembus - marks xi-Persei.
Rottenreoch - marks zeta-Persei, the star Atik.
Fowlis Wester marks omicron-Persei as a carved megalth showing the head and back shoulder of the figure represented by Perseus and including the stars of Auriga, Taurus and the Pleiades.
Muir of Gormack by Blairgowrie marks kappa-Persei.
Pitcur at Collace, Newbigging marks beta-Persei, Algol, also called GHUL (= COLLace)
The Macbeth Stone, Belmont Castle, Meigle marks M34 viz. rho-Persei at the Milky Way extension at this point which was a phallic projection later carried down in myth as Medusa at Algol. A relief from Meigle with a serpent appears to connect this site to the legend of Perseus and Medusa.
The Mannan Stone - Clackmannanshire represented the projection of the Milky Way above and to the right of the Pleiades. Clackmannanshire is the smallest county in Scotland, from about 10 miles North and South between Perthshire and the River Forth and about 11 miles East and West between Stirling and Fife. Mannan means "the man stone" and is a phallic symbol for this projection.
Tuilyies - Pleiades - Tuilyies as a word is the same as Arabic Al Thurayya for the Pleiades
Lundin Links marks Triangulum
Balfarg marks the stars between Triangulum and the Pleiades
In Edinburgh the Easter Broomhouse and Ratho, Tormain Hill mark Aries, the Cogar Stone marks the Cord of the Fish, in Arabic known as Al Risha, Peden's Pulpit, Gameshope, Tweedsmuir, marks the stars between Taurus and the head of Cetus, and Niddrie marks stars below Andromeda.
Doddington marks Diphda in Cetus
Lordenshaws shows the stars of Phoenix and marks Ankaa
Warden Rocks (where the River Tyne begins) near Swinburne mark Achernar in Eridanus
The Dere Street Line apparently marks the way to Eslie in Cepheus
St. Cuthbert's Way from Lindisfarne, the Holy Island,
to Melrose (Galashiels) taken by thousands each year
has the shape of Cetus and must be a Christianized version of this ancient marker route.
A Brothers Stone near Galashiels marks Cetus.
The Stone of Tollis Hill, Lauder shows an electric eels as Cetus reaching up to the Cord of the Fish and guarding the apples of the Hesperides at Aquarius. Wether Law, Longformacus shows the head of an eel on a stone known as the Grey Mare.
Hadrian's Wall = Eridanus (the r and d are reversed through metathesis) = River Tyne (Eri-Danus) which is the watershed between England and Scotland running to Newcastle (new earthwork), i.e. the South Tyne rather than the North Tyne as the ancient border.
The Glas Ghu Stone (so called by us) at the Kelvingrove Museum in Glasgow and found at Blue Bell Wood near the mouth of the Clyde River marks the end of Taurus. Stockie Muir Red Rock marks the red star Aldebaran in Taurus.
Ayr Arran Dumfires and Galloway
Merlin's Stone at Drumelzier Haugh near Broughton, southwest of Peebles, shows Taurus and the top stars of Orion. Cuff Hill in Ayrshire marks the "sleeve" of Orion known in Arabic as Al Kumm. The Gaelic Inber is in our opinon comparable to ancient Sumerian Nibru. The term inber means "confluence of waters" in Gaelic and inver means "estuary, river mouth". The Isle of Arran across from Ayr marks Orion. Machrie marks Orion's Belt. The megalithic sites of Kilpatrick, Monamore, the Giant's Graves, Torrylin and Ban mark the bottom stars of Orion with the Giant's Graves = Rigel. Nor-Mangill (Mangill = Menkar?) marks Mira Ceti.
Drumtroddan is the most important megalithic site in Dumfries and Galloway with a remarkable stone showing the stars of the heavens of Caelum, Eridanus, Fornax and Cetus. The Twelve Apostles in Dumfries and Galloway mark Fornax (Fries = Fornax?). The White Cairn at Corriedoo marks t-Eridanus. Cauldside Burn marks g-Eridanus, Cairnholy marks f-Eridanus and Mossyard and Highbanks mark stars of Eridanus. Boreland marks v2-Eridanus (Beemim). Torhousekie near Wigtown marks v3-Eridanus (Theemim). Mid Gleniron marks Caelum. St. Ninian's Cave may mark the Great Looped Nebula in Dorado - but this is highly speculative. Balmalloch and the White Cairn at Bargrennan mark Lepus.
In Kintyre, Blasthill marks Canopus. Glen Lussa marks Sirius and Canis Major. The constellation Gemini is marked by Corriechevie with Cor-riechevie perhaps equivalent to the Persian Rakhvad in Gemini which was the Babylonian lunar mansion Khigalla, "the canal", i.e. the "well" of Gemini. The shape of Kintyre with two side-by-side ranges of mountains marked Gemini initially from Corsill Point southwards, at the double promontory called Rinn Snoc (Rinn Snóc, Rintsnoc, Rind Snoc). Glecknabae was eta-Gemini, the star Praepes known by the Arabs as Nuhatai (= Nabae?). Dun Muirish and Dun Rostan marked stars of Cancer. Kinnell Park marked Capella in Auriga.
Argyll Bute Kilmartin Islay
The megalithic site Cairn Baan (Carnbaan) on the Isle of Bute in Argyllh has a stone whose cupmarks mark the constellation Argo (composed of Carina, Vela, Antlia) whence the name Argyll as possibly related to Argo. Carnbaan (also called Cairn Baan) should not be confused with three other megalithic sites all called Carn Ban on the Isle of Skye, in Argyll (north of Kilmartin) and on the Isle of Arran. Ballymeanoch in Kilmartin marks the extended body of Hydra at the star Alphard. with (m)eanoch possibly related to the Arabic unk "the serpent's neck". Kilmichael Glassary marks the head of Hydra. All the sites Carnbaan (Cairn Baan), Achnabreck, Kilmichael Glassary, Ballymeanoch, Kilmartin, Poltalloch, Carn Ban, Torran, Kintraw, Strontoiller with Diarmid's Stone and Achnacree together mark the shape of Hydra. Crarae marks Regulus in Leo. Port Charlotte on Islay marks Procyon and Canis Minor.
Lewis Harris Uist Skye Mull
The Isles of Lewis, Harris, North Uist and South Uist represent Scorpio. Lewis would seem to take its name from Lesath, the prong or trident of Scorpio, later its stinger. Steinacleit is thus the star Leschat. Clach an Trushal is the star Shaula (i.e. tru-SHAL). Callanais (also called Callanish) is The Stone of Eyre on Skye shows us the legendary but puzzling "ground and weight" of ancient astronomy, showing these to be stars arranged in the form of the net of the fisherman at Lupus and Centaurus.
The Orkneys represent Sagittarius as the bow and arrow of heaven together with Corona Australis as the hand and fingers of the heavenly archer Isbister is pi-Sagittarii and the Tomb of the Eagles points toward neighboring Aquila. Scottish Isbister is similar to the Indo-European e.g. Latvian term isbaznis meaning "stuffed bird".
The head of the arrow is represented by the Island of Hoy, Rora Head (Rora Head = A-rrow-head), and the arrowhead is carved into solid rock at the Dwarfe Stone showing it as a shaft with two flanks.
The mainland island of Orkney represents the bow. In fact, Orkney has the same root as Latin Arcus "bow" and Indo-European e.g. Latvian Virkne "bowstring", so that Latvian Virkne = Orkney. Skara Brae is eta-Sagitarii. The Ring of Brodgar is epsilon-Sagitarii. Unastan = Nasi = Nushshabah is gamma-Sagitarii. The middle of the bow is Stennes and Maes Howe. Stennes is similar to Latvian stienis or stiepis, equivalent to Akkadian Sin-nun-tu, words meaning "stave, bar, draw", representing delta-Sagitarii. Maes Howe represents L-Sagitarii. The Cuween Hill Cairn represents sigma-Sagitarii and has five chambers as the Nunki of the the ancients. Wideford Hill is T-Sagitarii.
Corona Australis marks the fingers and the hand of the archer with the Island of Rousay (also called Ray and variants) the same as Indo-European e.g. Latvian ie-Rievis "notch". Taversoe Tuick = Tweak and Taversoe is similar to Indo-European e.g. Latvian Tvers meaning "grasp".
The Island of Eday = Indo-European e.g. Latvian Vadi meaning "leads", i.e. feathers. Quoyness is the quiver and the Island of Sanday = Indo-European e.g. Latvian Sani = "side" of the archer.
Papa Westray, Mull Head, and the stars 1B and 2B represent the heavenly archer at the center of our galaxy.
The Shetlands represent Pavo, whose feathers end the arrow at Scord of Brouster, Gallow Hill, Pnhoulland, Stanydale and Gruting School. Further north the Shetlands represent Octans, Hydrus and heaven's South Pole "house", so that this house shape approximates Cepheus at the North Pole. Punds Water is v-Octans while beta-Octans is Beorgs of Housetter, North Roe.
Vord Hill, Fetlar is beta-Hydrii. The Rounds of Tivla, Unst, are Tivoli, the garden at the South Pole, simlar to that at the North Pole.